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HAIL & FIRE - a resource for Reformed and Gospel Theology in the works, exhortations, prayers, and apologetics of those who have maintained the Gospel and expounded upon the Scripture as the Eternal Word of God and the sole authority in Christian doctrine.

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on the Waldenses:

READ ONLINE: The History of the Waldenses by Jean Paul Perrin of Lyon (1624 Edition)

The History of
the Waldenses

by Jean Paul Perrin
(1624 Edition)

Read online - The Israel of the Alps - History of the Vaudois of Piedmont by Alexis Muston (1842 Edition in 2 volumes)

The Israel of the Alps; A Complete History of the Vaudois of Piedmont and their Colonies: prepared in great part from unpublished documents.
by Alexis Muston
(2 vol., 1842 Edition)

READ ONLINE: Persecution and slaughter of the Vadois Christians (The Vaudois - 1870 article)

The Vaudois
An article (1870)

READ ONLINE: A History of the Vaudois Church from its Origin, and of the Vaudois of Piedmont to the Present Day by Antoine Monastier (1848 Edition)

A History of the Vaudois Church from its Origin, and of the Vaudois of Piedmont to the Present Day
by Antoine Monastier

The Vaudois of Piedmont
(1873 Edition)
by J. N. Worsfold

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HOME > Library > Books > "History of the Waldenses of Italy, from their Origin to the Reformation" by Emilio Comba (Translated from the author's revised edition by Teofilo E. Comba, 1889 Edition)

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The Spanish Inquistion: It's Heroes and Martyrs, by Janet Gordon

"History of the Waldenses of Italy, from their Origin to the Reformation"

by Emilio Comba

(Waldensian Theological College, Florence, Italy)

Translated from the author's revised edition by Teofilo E. Comba, 1889 Edition

Hail & Fire REPRINTS

"History of the Waldenses of Italy,
from their Origin to the Reformation"

by Emilio Comba

(Waldensian Theological College, Florence, Italy)

Translated from the author's revised edition
by Teofilo E. Comba, 1889 Edition



"It is a beautiful peculiarity of this little people that it should occupy so prominent a place in the history of Europe." This saying of Michelet expresses so well the opinion commonly held, that a new attempt to write its history may, to some, appear superfluous. It may be urged, that, the history of the Waldenses being well known, there is no need to rewrite it. We reply: The history of the Waldenses is not so well-known as is generally assumed. Their early history has been thoroughly explored and discussed, but has never yet been recounted; indeed a writer of great authority has said, "The history of the ancient Waldenses certainly remains to be written." This is a grave omission indeed, which may well strike us as singular. Was it worth while, it may be asked, to trace their origin so far back and then leave their history unrecorded? There has been a desire on the part of some to extend backward their early history; with this only as a result, that it has been crushed out of all shape. The historian has filled it full of fables and traditions picked up at hap-hazard; then, as if with trumpet-blast and clarion-ring, its antiquity was blazoned forth. But, although the sound re-echoed far and wide, it could not dispel the thick cloud that overhung that people's origin and early days. Flatterers are more to be feared than assailants. The former would have it credited or imagined that the Waldenses are of a patriarchal age - of great duration; that they are apostolic in name and in fact, but barren withal; that they had an existence, but always in the cradle; that they did not live with all the word implies, but slept for three, seven, or even ten centuries! It is quite possible to conceive that such an uneventful existence - if such could be - might well have passed unnoticed; what we deny is that such an existence was possible. We shall examine facts, and, after all, if we find the antiquity of the Waldenses to be less far reaching than has been supposed, it is none the less grand and venerable.

So much for the early period, but as regards the modern period, its history cannot be said to be unrecorded. It is time, however, that there should now be a complete record, and such is the object of this new essay. The material which new researches accumulate from year to year, has nearly all passed through the crucible of discussion. The work of selection and discrimination is still a difficult one, and much has been discarded, and more will share the same fate, before the task of the critic can be considered complete; the reader is asked to bear this in mind and grant indulgence. We shall be guided by the adage of the poet: "Rien n'est beau que le vrai, le vrai seul est aimable."

We shall here study the early period of Waldensian history. There is an idea with some, that its origin may be traced back to the very time of the first preaching of the Gospel; but it is important that this idea be disentangled from a confused mass of legends. We shall find the first authentic source appearing with Waldo, and the disciples whom tradition has called by his name. From that time onward, we shall follow the sinuous course of their followers' history down to the eve of the Reformation.

Then will come the time for us to examine closely, in order to discriminate between those elements which properly belong to the Waldensian idea, and those which the body has taken to itself, in the fields both of literature and religious observances. Before we have finished we shall be convinced that the Waldensian protest at first aimed only at proclaiming and observing the apostolic ideal - an ideal disowned by the Popes and abandoned by the Church; but that, meeting with persecutions, it quickly gave way to a movement of dissent, which did not at once culminate in schism but necessarily eventually led to it.



CHAPTER CONTENTS: The Alps - their legends, like their rivers, have hidden sources - The question of the origin of the Waldenses; the difficulties which surround it - The report of a monk and the inferences that may be drawn from it - The origin of the Waldenses as recorded in tradition, both as to their decadence and as to subsequent revivals - The echo of this among the primitive Waldenses - How another monk quibbles on this point - The Waldensian tradition properly so called - How it degenerated - The truth which lies beneath it - The source.

The Alps which mark the boundaries of France, Switzerland, and Italy, offer one of the most sublime of spectacles to the eye of man. Nature's temples may be found under all skies, but there, indeed, stands her cathedral, with its white cupola and high altar. That altar is common to all Europe. A divine hand has there gathered together invaluable traditions, truths, liberty and virtue. If they be lost elsewhere, there at least they may be found; they may be inhaled with every breath, fresh as the first breeze of morn. Among those awe-inspiring mountains, nature is so grand, so towering, that all things save reason and truth seem annihilated in her presence. All temples made by men are small and puny, before this magnificent pile, built by the hand of God. Before this mighty Alpine altar, the Omnipotence of God manifests itself in all its grandeur, and here, as under the very covert of His wings, lies the birthplace of the Waldenses. It is owing to its position that the little Waldensian Church has been compared to a dove able to find her food even among the rocks.

It is hence that spring the traditions of the House of Savoy, and those others concerning the Israel of the Alps, that are so closely united with them in time and place.
READ MORE about the Waldenses:

The Israel of the Alps; A Complete History of the Vaudois of Piedmont and their Colonies: prepared in great part from unpublished documents.

by Alexis Muston

QUOTE: "'Why relate such atrocities?' more than one voice will exclaim with emotion. To inspire horror of the odious principles which have produced them. Do you suppose that an accout of the blood which was shed will never be called for? Nay; these vile oppressors of mankind, tyrannizing by the sword, tyrannizing by deceit, tyrannizing by cupidity - these heroes of superstition and intolerance, who would have put an end to Christiansity a thousand times over, if it could have been destroyed - these authors of so may wounds still bleeding in the world - must endure history to the last."

The course of the history of the Waldenses may well be typified by that of one of their own Alpine rivers. Like a river, the history interests us from the very mystery of its origin. Its source we shall find to be a distinct one, and the distant rivers unto this day bear that name which tradition, with ineffaceable seal, has stamped as the origin of its first waters. From such a place the rivers of history take their rise, even as at the foot of Monte Rosa - crowned with her seven-pointed diadem - issue those rivers that bless Europe, and make it fertile. At distant intervals come the tributaries which greatly help to swell its volume. Its course is marked by many, and ofttimes surprising irregularities; but a vigorous people, like an Alpine river, will make for itself an outlet, in spite of all obstacles. It is dammed back by every impediment it meets, and seems to gain in strength thereby. If no struggle be required of it, it grows feeble and is in danger of being lost. People who judge only by appearances may be deceived by this; for, just as in the case of the Rhone, it may happen that defeat is proclaimed when victory is nearest at hand. Is not the very spot known as "la perte du Rhône" the scene of its most marvellous victory? It happens that the naturalist who explains this phenomenon, is himself induced to make a comparison which has a material interest for us. He says: - "It might often have been believed that the extermination of the Waldensians was complete; but they have always risen again."

We need not multiply the analogies; they are self evident. Whether we study the course of a history or of a river, we like to discover the origin, and what wanderings
READ ONLINE: The History of the Waldenses by Jean Paul Perrin of Lyon (1624 Edition)


The History of
the Waldenses

(1624 Edition)

by Jean Paul Perrin

were passed through before the light of day was reached. We may claim to say in our turn: - "Such are questions with which an ignorant man distracts himself, and learned men are far from having solved. How much study and research are necessary before we can trace, without fear of being mistaken, the immeasurable circuit followed by a single drop of water through clouds and rocks." Waldensian history contains just such obscurities of origin and regions of cloud. The drop of water represents here the idea, the principle, which disengages itself, in order eventually to reach the river's source.

The question of the origin of the Waldenses deserves serious investigation. Natural obscurities render the task a difficult one, and this difficulty is increased by party polemics, the result being confusion worse confounded. Solutions offered are far from agreeing with each other. It has been said : - "There is hardly a sect whose origin has been more disputed over than that of the Waldenses." Disregarding the expression "a sect" - which is here more or less out of place - the above statement is not without foundation. We know that any question of origin contains inherently an element of vagueness, which fascinates the imagination. What religion, city, or family, is not inclined to trace its origin back to mythical sources? All these had their origin in the womb of time, as the river has its source, and the tree its roots, in the womb of nature. To discover such origin, our investigation must be conducted without prejudice or foregone conclusions. If prejudice be allowed to have a voice in the matter, it will only accumulate legends; and history can no longer disentangle herself from them. This has too often been the case. Basnage says: - "It is a weakness belonging to all Churches, as well as States, to claim for themselves great antiquity." The reason may be readily divined, for it is nothing new. Let us admit at the outset, that prejudice has taken a very active part in the researches relating to the origin of the Waldenses; it has exerted its influence, somewhat over everybody, friends as well as foes. But as prejudice has no part in true history, it must be our endeavour to free ourselves of it.

The following words, written more than five centuries ago, are often quoted: - "Among all the sects, there is none more pernicious to the church than that of the Leonists, and for three reasons: - In the first place, because it is one of the most ancient; for some say that it dates back to the time of Sylvester; others to the time of the Apostles. In the second place, because it is the most widespread. There is hardly a country where it does not exist. In the third place, because, if other sects strike with horror those who listen to them, the Leonists, on the contrary, possess a great outward appearance of piety. As a matter of fact they lead irreproachable lives before men, and as regards their faith and the articles of their creed, they are orthodox. Then one conspicuous fault is, that they blaspheme against the Church and the clergy, points on which laymen in general are known to be too easily led away."

Here we have an indisputable testimony. It has been erroneously attributed to the Inquisitor Raincrius Saccho, who settled in Milan, and was in contact with the Waldenses of Italy; whereas it was rendered by one of his colleagues in the diocese of Passau in Austria, about the year 1260. We may assent to it, but on one condition, namely, that its meaning be not perverted. The writer in no wise affirms that the Waldenses date back to a period anterior to Waldo; he simply states that some claim that they do. As for himself, he believes in no such thing. His mode alone of expressing himself indicates this, whilst the fact becomes evident as he goes on to give his opinion as to the origin of the Waldenses. He classifies them, without much ceremony, among "modern heretics," and proceeds to state that they are descendants of Waldo. Even in such a shape, this testimony is nevertheless of material value to us ; for it offers, as it were, the end of a skein which will have to be disentangled. Unquestionably it was, even at this early time, current among the Waldenses, that they were of ancient origin, truly apostolic. We shall hereafter see how this idea may be entertained, and what may reasonably be inferred from it.

The pretension to apostolic succession in the Church innate, manifests itself in the Catholic party in a way differing from that in the dissenting sections. In the former it takes a more material and gross form of expression than in the case of the latter, in which it has nevertheless a wider basis of truth, notwithstanding the little regard manifested for appearances. According to the popular tradition - which for many years has had an increasing ascendancy over men's minds - the primitive Church, faithful and canonical, goes back to the days of Constantine, under whose reign the great original fall of the Church took place, and the era of apostacy began. At that time the church and the world became reconciled; according to the legend, this was the manner of it: -

Constantine, like his predecessors, had first been an enemy - a persecutor of the church. Being afflicted with leprosy, he imagined that in order to be healed, he must bathe in the purest human blood. The innocents destined to furnish this imperial bath were about to be immolated, when their mothers' cry was heard. The Emperor stopped; he was ashamed. Having been warned in a dream, he applied for healing to Sylvester, Bishop of Rome, and by him was baptized in clear water, which miraculously removed the leprosy. Then Constantine made a public declaration of faith, adding that he recognised the sovereignty of Sylvester, Head of the Church, Lord of Rome, of Italy and of the West. It is even said that taking the golden diadem from his own brow, he crowned Sylvester with it to the glory of Saint Peter. Having done this, he withdrew to the East, in order not to encroach upon the Pontiff's domain. During the ceremony, however, a voice had been heard on high, a cry repeated by the angels in the heavens, saying: - "Today has poison been poured out in the Church." Sylvester heard it as well as the rest; but notwithstanding the example of his Divine master, of the apostles, and of his own predecessors, he was not ashamed to yield to temptation. This time the devil gained the victory, and Sylvester bowed himself before the Emperor, receiving a crown and earthly possessions. Thus, when Caesar became a Christian, the Pope became a Pagan. Since that time men began to separate themselves from Sylvester and his successors, because it was through them that decadence and the ruin of faith and morals was brought about.

Such was the original fall of the Church. It opened out a new era of corruption on the one hand, and of reform on the other. The reaction produced by it called generations back to the apostolic faith, and caused it to be mourned as a lost ideal. But, it may be asked, is not the above-mentioned story of the gifts made to the Pope unauthentic? Undoubtedly; nevertheless, it is the expression of a real truth. At all events, it ministered to the ambition of Popes. It is easily perceived that it was in reliance upon its authenticity and authority that they "originally founded their temporal dominion." Towards the year 1000 its authenticity was already being contested, but still it was admitted by general opinion. While the disciples of Arnaud rejected it as apocryphal, in the days of Eugene III., St. Bernard in a letter to this pontiff, who had at one time been his pupil, writes: - "Acting as thou doest, thou showest that thou hast not succeeded to Peter but to Constantine." And Dante, a long time after, expresses the legend in those famous lines: -

"Ah, Constantine! of how much ill was cause, Not thy conversion, but those rich domains, That the first wealthy pope received of thee."

Tradition, indeed, makes the destinies of the Church depend too much upon the will of two men, who, indeed, deserved "neither such excess of honour, nor such indignity."

Decadence had commenced before their appearance upon the scene of history; they are not the originators of it, but they are its most famous factors. Popular tradition, with its tendency to personify everything, clung to their names, the more naturally, in that they mark a distinct political date; that of the general and definite transition of the free, humble, and poor primitive Church into the enslaved, dominant, and worldly Church. In this change is to be found the prime reason, and the common basis of the reactions, which followed one another through the ages of Roman evolution, from the ancient Cathari to the Middle Ages, from Vigilantius and Claudius of Turin down to Pierre de Bruys, Arnaldo da Brescia, Henry of Lausanne and Waldo, and from Waldo to the Reformation. Those reactions, which ecclesiastic prejudice condemns as novel innovations, are, with a few exceptions, more truly conservative than the dominant church with its constant introduction of innovations; as compared with the latter, they seem even to be retrogressive. We must not be surprised if when the first sects had disappeared, the Waldensian reaction, sprung as it were from the very womb of general Christian tradition, claimed its right to be considered apostolic; and this, not at the moment of its appearance, when it still courted the tutelage of the Pope; but, it must be well observed, only after it had broken off with him in consequence of the sentences pronounced by the Councils and the persecution which followed. Indeed, the first writers who mention the Waldenses - Bernardus Fontis Calidi, Alanus, Peter Vallis Cernaii, Eberhard of Bethune, and others - make no allusion to any pretension on their part to reach back through history to the early days of the Church. And yet that pretension was present in the case of others and was quite noisy and near at hand; it was heard from the mouths of other dissenters, particularly from the Cathari; but at that time, having no use for such pretensions, they had not as yet appropriated them. When they were placed under the ban of Catholic Christendom they changed their attitude and became more resolute. They, too, armed themselves with the tradition then in vogue amongst other bodies; and whilst accusing the dominant Church of apostasy, they claimed for themselves an origin anterior to the period of decadence. From that moment, that is to say during the thirteenth century, the testimony of history comes to light, as is shown by the words of the Inquisitor of the diocese of Passau, and as the following citation will prove: -

"The Church of Christ," says the monk Raincrius Saccho, "continued in her bishops and other prelates, down to the blessed Sylvester; but under his reign it declined until the Restoration, which was their work. They say, however, that at all times there have been God-fearing people who have been saved." They believe that Pope Sylvester, at the instigation of the devil, became the founder of the Roman Church. "They say," repeats the monk Moneta, "that the Church of God had declined in the time of Sylvester, and that in these days it had been re-established by their efforts, commencing with Waldo." "They call themselves successors of the Apostles," adds monk David of Augsburg, "and say they are in possession of the apostolic authority, and of the keys to bind and unbind."

It is here evident, at the first glance, to what the Waldenses' pretension to apostolic antiquity is reduced. It is the religious idea that is ancient in their estimation, not the fact of their origin as a people. They plead this antiquity for the sole purpose of reconnecting the truth of their faith and principles with its true source; the tradition of which had been interrupted by the Roman apostasy. So manifest is this fact that in order to refute the ideal succession claimed by the Waldenses, the Inquisitor Moneta urges against them the evidence of historical facts. This is what he says : -

"We shall plainly see, if we inquire into their origin, that they are not the Church of God. Indeed, their existence dates but a little way back; because, according to every evidence, their origin goes back to Waldo, a citizen of Lyons, who opened the way for them some eighty years ago. Therefore, they are not the successors of the primitive Church; therefore, they are not the Church of God. Will they attempt to assert that their mode of thought is of a date prior to Waldo? If so, let them prove it by some testimony. But that is impossible. If they be descendants of Waldo let them tell us whence he himself was descended. It they say that they are begotten of God, of the Apostles, and of the Gospel, we answer: God is merciful only through his minister, according to these words, 'Whosoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them.' Therefore, they can have been remitted to Waldo only through the instrumentality of a minister. Who may that minister be? Have they the three ecclesiastic orders? They reply that they have. Then I ask: From whom do they hold them? Who is their bishop? If they answer: Such an one, I ask: By whom was he ordained? If they say: He was ordained by a certain person, I ask again: Who ordained this certain person? Following them up in this way, they are compelled to go back to Waldo. Then we ask: From whom did he hold orders? If they say that he took them unto himself, it is clear that they are at variance with the Apostle, who writes : - 'And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that was called of God, as was Aaron.' Will they say that Waldo holds orders directly from God? If they do, they will not be able to prove it by the testimony of the Scriptures. Some have claimed that Waldo was ordained by the community of his brethren, and the first to reason in this way was a certain heresiarch, belonging to the order of the 'Poor of Lombardy ' - a pervert doctor called Thomas. They may say, perhaps, that their congregation and that of the Roman Church are one, both Holy and Catholic; although divided into two sections, one of which, the Roman Church is that of the wicked; and the other, the Waldensian community, that of the righteous. But this is contradicted by the fact that the existence of such a community, from the time of Sylvester to that of Waldo, cannot be demonstrated. They say that the Church of God declined in the days of the blessed Sylvester. Let us see: How do they know that to be the case? It cannot be proved by any testimony, and therefore they are obliged to be silent. A wicked life does not prevent a minister from being efficacious in his office; and even though Sylvester had been sinful and wicked, are we bound to conclude that in him the Church had fallen?"

This monk's polemics permit us to form some conception of the opinion held in the thirteenth century concerning the Waldenses' origin.

But, some may say that this is not the common opinion; and that it is only the notion of fanatic monks and absolutely unworthy of credit.

That is not exactly so; Moneta relates current opinions. Furthermore, we are dealing here with judges of heresy, who base their testimony upon what they heard a thousand times in the course of their prosecutions; and this proves that they are not absolutely incompetent. Are they truthful? Not always; far from it; but two things are worthy of notice, namely, that in this case their testimony is unanimous, and that their object is to direct the members of the Inquisition in the examination and refutation of heretics. Indeed, in this case, one can hardly see what they could gain by concealing acknowledged facts. The Waldenses were there to produce such facts, if there be any that indicate an ancient origin, prior to Waldo. They did not do so, and this is an important point. The first forefathers of the Waldensian Church were quite as anxious as anybody to appeal to apostolic tradition, unpractised, but unforgotten. They cherished the thought of reviving it again, this cannot be doubted; but nowhere do we read that, on either side of the Alps, they claimed upon historical ground, an origin anterior to that of Waldo. Did they but produce their testimony we should stand convinced. Let us first cite a fact.

In the year 1218, the Waldenses held a conference with their brethren of Lombardy; the name they then bore was that of Valdesians or Associates of Valdes. Together they composed the Valdesian Society. In their debates, not the slightest allusion is found to a time anterior to Waldo. To him, as to the leader and founder of the institution, more than one question was referred. He was the leader then according to the avowal of these early Valdesians.

To this fact we can add a piece of explicit testimony, taken from a Waldensian document, with two readings, one of which bears the date of 1404. It reads as follows: -

"We do not find anywhere in the writings of the Old Testament that the light of truth and of holiness was at any time completely extinguished. There have always been men who walked faithfully in the paths of righteousness. Their number has been at times reduced to a few; but has never been altogether lost. We believe that the same has been the case from the time of Jesus Christ until now; and that it will be so unto the end. For if the Church of God was founded, it was in order that she might remain until the end of time. She preserved for a long period the virtue of holy religion, and, according to ancient history, her directors lived in poverty and humility for about three centuries; that is to say, down to the time of Constantine. Under the reign of this Emperor, who was a leper, there was in the Church a man named Sylvester, a Roman. Constantine went to him, was baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, and cured of his leprosy. The Emperor finding himself healed of a loathsome disease, in the name of Jesus Christ, thought he would honour him who had wrought the cure by bestowing upon him the Crown of the Empire. Sylvester accepted it, but his companion, it is said, refused his consent, separated from him, and continued to follow the path of poverty. Then, Constantine went away to regions beyond the sea, followed by a multitude of Romans, and built up the city, to which he gave his name - Constantinople - so that from that time the Heresiarch rose to honour and dignity, and evil was multiplied upon the earth. We do not believe that the Church of God, absolutely departed from the way of truth; but one portion yielded, and, as is commonly seen, the majority was led away to evil; the other portion remaining long faithful to the truth it had received. Thus, little by little, the sanctity of the Church declined. Eight centuries after Constantine, there arose a man named Peter, a native, they say, of a country called Vaud."

Such is the primitive tradition of the Waldenses with regard to their origin. It springs from general tradition, floating in the minds of men for generations. It took root in Lombardy during the XIV. century, and only later, as we shall see further on, did it make its appearance in the valleys of the Alps. Moreover, it has no reference to the isolated existence of any particular religious sect, and not even to their creeds; but solely to the vow of poverty, which Waldo certainly did not invent, but merely re-established. The testimony of the primitive Waldenses does not, when it is well authenticated, differ materially from that of their judges.

It may be perceived from the Waldensian document quoted above, that the tradition concerning their origin had already begun to degenerate. The imaginary personage, at one time placed side by side with Sylvester, and at another confronted with him, was at first only used to represent uprightness, as the Roman Bishop represents the fall. There is this difference, however, that whereas Sylvester is a man of flesh and blood, the first of a branch like Cain, his companion, having succumbed, like Abel, leaves but a tradition without genealogy. At first he is anonymous; later he is called Leon, perhaps to explain the name of Leonists, at a time when it had already been forgotten that the disciples of Waldo were so named because they came from Lyons. Perhaps in pursuance of a still more whimsical idea, the time of Waldo's appearance was antedated to the time of Sylvester; then he and this so-called Leon constitute one and the same man. Such an hypothesis could only be tenable upon the assumption that Waldo had grown old backwards, and that to about the age of Methuselah. The tradition, started in this manner, was still more perverted by the men of the Reformation. Adopting the Waldenses as their precursors, they endeavoured, by that means, to create for themselves "a secret perpetuity during the middle ages, vying with Catholic perpetuity." This purpose was easily attained, thanks to the confounding of the Waldensian reaction with those that, especially during the stormy days of persecution, preceded it. Legend, like Pharaoh's lean kine, swallowed up history; the date of Waldensian writings were confused, and false quotations did the rest.

more to come . . .

"Others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment: They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented; (Of whom the world was not worthy:) they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise" Heb 11:36-39 KJV
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